Saturday, August 8, 2020

Direct and Indirect Speech Explanation

Hi friends and my dear students! Today I am here with Direct and Indirect Speech A Complete Guide. After reading my explanation, I am sure that you will understand Direct and Indirect Speech Explanation. If You like this Reported Speech Guide, Please share it with your friends and near and dear. 
Direct and Indirect Speech A Complete Guide
Direct and Indirect Speech A Complete Guide

Direct and Indirect Speech A Complete Guide

There are two ways to convey a message of a person, or the words spoken by a person to another person.

1. Direct speech

2. Indirect speech

Suppose your friend whose name is Rahul tells you in the ground, “I will meet you tomorrow." You come home and you want to tell your brother what Rahul has told you. Here there are two ways to tell him.

Direct speech:                    Rahul said, "I will meet you tomorrow."

Indirect Speech:                 Rahul said that he would meet me the following day.

In Simple words

Quoting the exact words of the speaker are called “Direct Speech”.

For example

Ravi said, “I am writing a letter now”.

Reporting of what a speaker said without quoting his exact words is called ‘Indirect Speech’.

For example

Ravi said that he was writing a letter then.

Indirect Speech for all Tenses

Direct Speech                                                         Indirect Speech

Present Simple         (V1)                                         Past Simple (V2)

Present Continuous (is/am/are + ing)                     Past Continuous (was/were + ing)

Present Perfect (have/has)                                     Past Perfect (had)

Present Perfect Continuous (have been/has been)Past Perfect Continuous (had been)

Past Simple (V2)                                                     Past Perfect Simple (had+V3)

Past Continuous (was/were +ing)                           Past Perfect Continuous (had been +ing)

Past Perfect (had + V3)                                          Past Perfect Simple (had + V3)

Past Perfect Continuous (had been +ing)               Past Perfect Continuous (had been +ing)

Simple Future (Will/shall/can/may+V1)                   Future in the past (would/should/could/might +V1)

Future Continuous (will be/shall be)                        Future continuous in the past (would be/should be)

Future Perfect (would have+V3)                             Future Perfect in the past (would have+V3)

Have to                                                                    Had to

Must                                                                         Had to

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Change of Place and Time

here                there

today              that day

this morning  that morning

yesterday       the day before / the previous day

tomorrow        the next day / the following day

next week      the following week

next month    the following month

now                 then

tonight            that night

ago                 before

last week       the week before

next year        the following year

here                there

this                  that

these              those

How to change the pronouns and possessive adjectives:

I/you               he/she

me/you           him/her

my/your          his/her

mine/yours    his/hers

we/you           they

us/you            them

our/your         their

ours/yours     theirs

Statement (or) Assertive Sentence

Rules:

1. Remove the quotation marks in the statement.

2. Use the conjunction ‘that’.

3. Change the reporting verb ‘said to’ into ‘told’.

Note:

He said that (correct)

He told me that (correct)

He told that (Incorrect)

For example

1. "I always drink coffee", she said

    She said that she always drank coffee.

2. "I am reading a book", he explained.

    He explained that he was reading a book.

3. She said, "He has finished his work"

    She said that he had finished his work.

4. "I have been to India", he told me.

    He told me that he had been to India.

5. She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday."

    She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

Imperative Sentence (Order or Request)

Rules:

1. Remove the quotation mark in an Imperative sentence.

2. Use ‘to’ if it is an affirmative sentence. (without don‘t)

3. Use ‘not to’ if the sentence begins with Don‘t.

4. Don‘t use ‘that’

5. Omit the word ‘please’. Use the word ‘request’ instead of ‘said/asked’.

6. If the direct speech contains a request or a command, the reporting verb (say, said) change to tell/request/order/command, etc.

For example

1. The teacher said to me, “Shut the door.”

    The teacher ordered me to shut the door.

2. He said to me, “Please shut the door.”

    He requested me to shut the door.

3. He said to me, “Don't smoke.”

    He advised me not to smoke.

4. She said to him, “Consult a doctor.”

    She suggested him to consult a doctor.

5. He said to me, “Write it again.”

    He asked me to write it again.

 

Interrogative Sentence

Rules:

1. Remove the quotation marks and question mark in the interrogative sentence.

2. Use ‘if’ or ‘whether’ if the sentence begins with the helping verb. ("yes / No" Type).

3. Use the given interrogative word (what, when, where, why, who, whom, whose, which, how, etc.) if it does not begin with the helping verb. Don‘t use ‘that’

4. Changing the reporting verb (say, said) into ‘asked’ or ‘enquired’ in its correct tense.

5. Omit helping verb like ‘do, does, did’. But don’t omit them when they are with ‘not’.

For example

1. She said, "Where does Raju live?"

    She asked him where Raju lived.

2. She said, "Where are you going?"

    She asked where I was going.

3. He said, "Why is she crying?"

    He asked why she was crying.

4. He said, "Do you speak English?"

    He asked me if I spoke English.

5. He said, "Are you British or Indian?"

    He asked me whether I was British or Indian.

6. She said, "Is it raining?"

    She asked me if it was raining.

Exclamatory Sentence

Rules:

1. Change the exclamatory sentence into statement or Assertive

2. Remove the quotation marks and exclamatory mark.

3. Use the conjunction ‘that’

4. Omit the interjections such as Oh, O, Alas, how, what, hurrah.

5. Change the reporting verb (say, said) to “Exclaimed joyfully” for joyful incidents. Use “exclaimed sorrowfully” for sorrowful incidents.

Some examples are given here under.

Hurrah, Aha, Ha!                  Exclaimed with happiness or joy.

Alas, Ah!                               Exclaimed with sorrow

What, How, Oh!                    Exclaimed with surprise

Sorry!                                    Exclaimed with regret

Pooh, Pshaw!                        Exclaimed with contempt

Bravo!                                    Applauded him saying that

For example

1. Boys said, " Hurrah! we have won the match."         

    Boys exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

2. We said, " Hurrah! we have won the match."

    We exclaimed with joy that we had won the match.

3. The captain said, “Alas! I have lost the game.”

    The captain exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost the game.

4. She said, “What a pretty the child is!”

    She exclaimed that the child was very pretty.

5. She said, “Pooh! What a clumsy fellow he is.”

    She exclaimed with contempt that he was a very clumsy fellow.

6. The lady said, “Good morning, gentlemen.”

    The lady wished the gentlemen good morning.

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Exercise -1

Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech

1. He said “I work in a bank”

    He said ___________________________________________________________

2. Rajani said to me “We went out last night”

    Rajani told me ________________________________________________________

3. I said “I’m coming!”

    I said ___________________________________________________________

4. She said to me “I was waiting for the bus when he arrived”

    She told me ________________________________________________________

5. She said “I’d never been there before”

    She said ___________________________________________________________

6. Rajan said to me “I didn’t go to the party”

    Rajan told me ________________________________________________________

7. She said “I will come tomorrow”

    She said ___________________________________________________________

8. He said to me “He hasn’t eaten breakfast”

    He told me ________________________________________________________

9. They said “We can help you tomorrow”

    She said ___________________________________________________________

10.She said to me “You should go to bed early”

    She told me ________________________________________________________

11.My friend said to me “I don’t like chocolate”

    My friend told me __________________________________________________

12.She said “I won’t see you tomorrow”

    She said ___________________________________________________________

13.She said “She’s living in Paris for a few months”

    She said ___________________________________________________________

14.She said to me “I visited my parents at the weekend”

    She told me ________________________________________________________

15.She said “She hasn’t eaten sushi before”

    She said ___________________________________________________________

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